Basic Chord Theory

In this video is all the basic theory you’ll need to understand why chords work and sound as they do. I’m focusing on guitar, but the theory remains the same for all instruments. Learn and enjoy.

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Chord Inversions 1 – Intro

Remember back when your teacher, (possibly me), told you that the deepest pitch in a chord should be its root note? Yeah, that was a lie. Sorry.

            It’s a good general rule though, because we like to hear root notes in the bass of a chord. Using other notes in the bass can have a dramatic effect on a chord’s overall sound, and we refer to these chords as Inversions. THIS VIDEO at around the 28min mark gives a great example of how using inversions can sound like entirely “new chords, a kind of optical illusion in sound”, (don’t watch all the video, the rest isn’t that relevant… I just like that quote).
In this lesson we’re going to work with open chords, and simply add or subtract strings and see what that does to the chord. But first off we need to cover some theory basics. It’s easy enough to remember that Inversions are just an interesting was of voicing a chord. It’s a little trickier to remember the different names for each inversion, which depend on which Chord Tone is being put in the bass. They are as follows…

  • We refer to chords that use the root note in the bass as the Root Position.
  • Chords using the 3rd in the bass are referred to as being the First Inversion.
  • Using the 5th in the bass is known as the Second Inversion.
  • Using the 7th in the bass is called the Third Inversion, (we won’t be using 7ths today).

            Be aware that the precise order of the other notes really doesn’t matter, provided the entire triad is being used in there somewhere.
The most common, and certainly the easiest way of writing these is as Slash Chords. However, these give no obvious information as to which Chord Tone is being used, so you won’t necessarily know which Inversion it is right away, (unless you happen to know all the notes in all the chords… In which case, why are you here?) I’ll give you that information as well in this lesson.

Let’s play some music.

I’ll walk you through what happens to an open E chord when we remove strings, and the chart below will show what happens when we do the same to other chords.
Start by playing an open E Major chord. Nice. Now, we’re going to not play that low E string. Although we’re voicing the E Major triad, it happens that the lowest pitch isn’t the root note any more. The lowest pitch is now a B which, as you should know, is the 5th in this chord. So, this chord is the 2nd Inversion of E, (which can also be called an E/B chord). Removing the A string makes this chord an E again, because the note played on the D string is the root note, E. Removing this D string will put the G# into the bass, which is the Maj 3rd in this chord. That gives us the 1st Inversion of E.
In the chart below I’ve used this same process with the other common open chords.

image

            Chords can get similarly interesting when we add open strings that weren’t previously there. For instance, if you play an open A chord, but include the low E string you get an A/E chord, (2nd Inversion). Similarly, playing a D chord and including the open A string gives you D/A, (2nd Inversion).

            In the next Inversions lesson we’ll talk about some practical uses for what we’ve just covered. After that we’ll move onto the 3rd inversion, which involves 7 chords. For now try to get more comfortable with the theory you’ve just been introduced to, and play around with the chords in the chart above.

(THIS VIDEO is certainly worth a watch if you’d like to reinforce what you learn from my site today)

Arpeggios 1 – Maj, Min & Dim Triad Arpeggios

Arpeggios form a neat middle-ground between chords and scales – you’ll be voicing chords in a manner similar to playing a scale. Today we’re going to cover the three different triads that appear in the Major Scale. A Tonic Triad, as you should know, is built by stacking thirds in your given scale, so the formula for each is as follows:
Major:              R          3        5
Minor:              R        m3      5
Diminished:     R        m3      b5
In each of these we start with our root note, (the 5th fret on the E string), and then play the third. In the case of A Maj this is the 4th fret on the A string, but the 8th fret of the E string for the other two. Our fifths are on the 7th fret of the A string, but flattened to the 6th fret for A Dim. All our Octaves are on the 7th fret of the D string.
We’re playing all of these arpeggios in A, which should allow you to see the differences between each triad. As with scales, it’s important to keep to the one-finger-per-fret rule.

           Well, now what? I’d suggest trying out each of these in various positions on the neck, remembering that they are moveable shapes, (you can play them rooted on the A string as well).
Once you’re happy you can move them around a bit, try applying them to the Nashville Numbering System and see if you can play arpeggios for every chord within a given key using both the E and A string as roots.